Oscillotherapeutics–Time-targeted interventions in epilepsy and beyond

Oscillatory brain activities support many physiological functions from motor controlto cognition. Disruptions of the normal oscillatory brain activities are commonly observed in neurological and psychiatric disorders including epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, anxiety/traumarelated disorders, major depressive disorders, and drug addiction. Therefore, these disorders can be considered as common oscillation defects despite having distinct behavioral manifestations and genetic causes. Recent technical advances of neuronal activity recording and analysis have allowed us to study the pathological oscillations of each disorder as a possible biomarker of symptoms. Furthermore, recent advances in brain stimulation technologies enable time- and space-targeted interventions of the pathological oscillations of both neurological disorders and psychiatric disorders as possible targets for regulating their symptoms.